Commissioned Research Report on Archives of Takeshima

In an effort to assist further study on Takeshima, documents made mainly during the period from 1905, when the incorporation of Takeshima into Shimane Prefecture was made by the Cabinet decision, to the 1950s, were collected and compiled. Collected documents were mostly those indicating factual situations at that time. We tried our best to identify the location of the documents and compiled them as graphically digitalized data.

Exemplar Documents on the FY2016 Research Report

  1. Editorial from the Yomiuri Shimbun (newspaper) regarding the name Takeshima (July 10, 1905)
  2. Commerce and Industry Overview of Shimane Prefecture (September 7, 1910)
  3. Industry Guide in Shimane Prefecture (May 22, 1912)
  4. Permission for Mining Preliminary Trial Digging Rights (Ministry of Commerce and Industry) (September 19, 1939)
  5. Introduction to the Dokdo Issue Chapter 1: Historical Review of Dokdo Section 1 〔1955〕
  6. Introduction to the Dokdo Issue Chapter 1: Historical Review of Dokdo Section 2 〔1955〕
  7. Governmental and Administrative Separation of Certain Outlying Areas from Japan (SCAPIN-677) (January 29, 1946)
  8. Takeshima, Northwest of the Oki Islands, Designated as a Bombing Range (September 16, 1947)
  9. Notification on Hydrographic No. 38 (Designation of Takeshima, on the northwestern coast of Honshu and northwest of the Oki Islands, as a bombing range) (September 27, 1947)
  10. 10. Shimane Prefecture Notification No. 352 Grant of common fishery rights (June 19, 1953)
  11. Letter sent from the U.S. Government to the Korean Government on August 10, 1951
    (Letter from Dean Rusk, the U.S. Assistant Secretary of State, to Yang Yu Chan, the ROK Ambassador to the United States [The “Rusk Document”]) (August 10, 1951)
  12. * A note verbale of protest from the Government of Japan to the Government of the ROK on January 28, 1952, in response to a declaration concerning maritime sovereignty by the President of the ROK, Syngman Rhee. (January 28, 1952)

1. Editorial from the Yomiuri Shimbun (newspaper) regarding the name Takeshima (July 10, 1905)

Repository:Tokyo Main Library of the National Diet Library

 Takeshima was called “Matsushima” during the Edo Period and “Liancourt Island” in the early Meiji Period. This is an editor’s reply to the question from a reader regarding the island being officially named “Takeshima” after its incorporation into Shimane Prefecture in 1905 (dated July 10, 1905).
 In the late 18th century, European explorers had differing measurements for the latitude and longitude of Utsuryo Island (Ulleungdo). This caused confusion over the name of the islands: “Matsushima” was used as the name for Takeshima starting in the Edo Period (17th century), but then it became the name for Utsuryo Island, and Takeshima became “Liancourt Rocks” and “Lyanko/Lanco Island” after a ship named “Liancourt” passed by Takeshima in 1849. Based on this background, this material shows that Utsuryo Island -- which was called Dagelet Island in the ROK -- should be called “Matsushima,” and the island, which was called as “Liancourt Rocks” and known to Japanese fishermen for a long time, was officially named “Takeshima.”
 Except for one typo (the Russian name “Memalai” should be spelled “Menelai”), this article shows the exact content of the Shimane Prefecture Notice No. 40 of February 1905, including the latitude and longitude measurements “37° 9’ 30’’ N, 131° 55’ 0’’ E.”

Editorial from the Yomiuri Shimbun (newspaper) regarding the name Takeshima (July 10, 1905)

2. Commerce and Industry Overview of Shimane Prefecture (September 7, 1910)

Repository:Tokyo Main Library of the National Diet Library, Kansai-kan
 This is the commerce and industry information of Shimane Prefecture, and there is an article which mentions Takeshima in the section of the “Place of Production” for the “Sea Lion Hides” in the part of “Marine Products.” Also, in the “Production State,” there is an explanation about “Takeshima Gyoryo Goshi-Kaisha,” the fishing company established by Yozaburo NAKAI. This material describes that Shimane Prefecture had authority over the fishing in Takeshima as follows: “This prefecture established rules in order to protect sea lion breeding, and the number of fishermen who are allowed to capture sea lions is controlled by the rules in this prefecture.”.

Commerce and Industry Overview of Shimane Prefecture (September 7, 1910)

3. Industry Guide in Shimane Prefecture (May 22, 1912)

Repository:Tokyo Main Library of the National Diet Library, Kansai-kan

 This is a booklet created as tourist guides of Shimane Prefecture after the opening of the San-in railway line between Kyoto and Izumo on March 1, 1912. Takeshima is mentioned in the “City Products and Places of Scenic Beauty and Historic Interest” section, and there is a description of “Takeshima Gyoryo Kabushiki-Kaisha (*Goshi-Kaisha is correct),” which Yozaburo NAKAI was managing.

Industry Guide in Shimane Prefecture (May 22, 1912)

4. Permission for Mining Preliminary Trial Digging Rights (Ministry of Commerce and Industry) (September 19, 1939)

Repository:Shimane Prefectural Library

 There are a great number of black-tailed gulls living in Takeshima; therefore, guano has accumulated over the years and has formed guano phosphate rocks. In June 1934, an application for a preliminary trial digging of phosphate in Takeshima was submitted to the Osaka Mining Inspection Bureau, and permission was given to Gentaro KOBAYASHI and another person on June 6, 1939.
 The Ministry of Commerce and Industry announced this in the “Kampo” (official gazette) dated September 19.

Permission for Mining Preliminary Trial Digging Rights (Ministry of Commerce and Industry) (September 19, 1939)

5. Introduction to the Dokdo Issue Chapter 1: Historical Review of Dokdo Section 1 〔1955〕

Repository:Institute of Developing Economies Library Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO)

 Section 1 of the “Introduction to the Dokdo Issue” focuses on the history of Utsuryo Island (Ulleungdo) and Takeshima (Dokdo) between the late 19th century and early 20th century. In “6. Dokdo and Development of Ulleungdo” of this section, it states that Koreans began moving to Ulleungdo after the order of Development of Ulluengdo, that, in accordance with the “Imperial Edict” in 1901 (this was an error, and should be 1900), Ulleungdo was promoted to a county and the island’s administrator was changed to a county magistrate. Regarding Takashima, it also clearly states that “there is no official record which shows the island being incorporated into the administrative district of Ulleungdo.”
 * From the context, there is a possibility that this references Lee Kyoo Won’s dispatch to Ulleungdo.

Introduction to the Dokdo Issue Chapter 1: Historical Review of Dokdo Section 1 〔1955〕

6. Introduction to the Dokdo Issue Chapter 1: Historical Review of Dokdo Section 2 〔1955〕

Repository:Institute of Developing Economies Library Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO)

 In Section 2 of the “Introduction to the Dokdo Issue,” it states that incorporation of Takeshima (Dokdo) into Shimane Prefecture in 1905 was an invasion by Japan, and that Japan considered Dokdo as a territory of Korea even while Korea was under Japanese rule. For example, in “5. Documents of Dokdo under the Rule of the Empire of Japan and Showing Proof of Korea’s Territorial Rights,” the book cites a paragraph from “Ryotei to Hiyou-gaisan (Itinerary and Cost Estimation)” (published by the Japan Tourist-Bureau) stating that “the eastern end of Korea is Ulleungdo, Takeshima of North Gyeongsang Province at 37° 31’ 5’’ N, 130° 56’ 3’’ E.” However, considering these longitude and the latitude measurements, Takeshima in this description actually apply to Jukdo, the island located northeast of Ulleungdo (37° 31’ 44’’ N, 130° 56’ 17’’ E), so this reference/example in the book is invalid.

Introduction to the Dokdo Issue Chapter 1: Historical Review of Dokdo Section 2 〔1955〕

7. Governmental and Administrative Separation of Certain Outlying Areas from Japan (SCAPIN-677) (January 29, 1946)

Repository:National Diet Library

 The Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers (SCAP) ordered the Government of Japan to cease exerting political and administrative authority over certain areas, and they included Takeshima (SCAPIN- 677). However, it clearly states in paragraph 6 of the Note that: “Nothing in this directive shall be construed as an indication of Allied policy relating to the ultimate determination of the minor islands referred to in Article 8 of the Potsdam Declaration.”

Governmental and Administrative Separation of Certain Outlying Areas from Japan (SCAPIN-677) (January 29, 1946)

8. Takeshima, Northwest of the Oki Islands, Designated as a Bombing Range (September 16, 1947)

Repository:Tokyo Main Library of the National Diet Library, Kansai-kan

 One of the orders issued by the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers, to designate Takeshima as a bombing range and to notify the public prior to its usage.

Takeshima, Northwest of the Oki Islands, Designated as a Bombing Range (September 16, 1947)

9. Notification on Hydrographic No. 38 (Designation of Takeshima, on the northwestern coast of Honshu and northwest of the Oki Islands, as a bombing range) (September 27, 1947)

Repository:National Diet Library

 This material states that Takeshima was designated as a bombing range and that the general public would be notified before each use of the range.

 (Designation of Takeshima, on the northwestern coast of Honshu and northwest of the Oki Islands, as a bombing range) (September 27, 1947)

10. Shimane Prefecture Notification No. 352 Grant of common fishery rights (June 19, 1953)

Repository:General Affairs Division, Department of General Affairs, Shimane Prefectural Government

 Following the release of Takeshima from the designation of a bombing range by the Japan-U.S. Joint Committee, Shimane Prefecture gave common fishery rights to the Oki Islands Federation of Fisheries Co-operative Association to fish for seaweed, abalones and turban shells in the seas around Takeshima.

Shimane Prefecture Notification No. 352 Grant of common fishery rights (June 19, 1953)

11. Letter sent from the U.S. Government to the Korean Government on August 10, 1951
(Letter from Dean Rusk, the U.S. Assistant Secretary of State, to Yang Yu Chan, the ROK Ambassador to the United States [The “Rusk Document”]) (August 10, 1951)

Repository:Tokyo Main Library of the National Diet Library

 This is the letter from Dean Rusk, the U.S. Assistant Secretary of State for Far Eastern Affairs, to Yang Yu Chan, the ROK Ambassador to the United States, which clearly denied the claims of the ROK in response to ROK’s Takeshima-related requests (in two separate letters written on July 19 and August 2, 1951) regarding the draft of the San Francisco Peace Treaty.
 When drafting the treaty, the ROK requested to include Takeshima as an area that Japan should renounce, but the U.S. Government clearly rejected the ROK’s claim, stating that “Takeshima ... was ... never treated as part of Korea and ... does not ever appear before to have been claimed by Korea.”
 Accordingly, this solidifies the Japanese claims of that Takeshima is a territory of Japan in the San Francisco Peace Treaty, and proves the Japanese claim to be rightful.

Letter sent from the U.S. Government to the Korean Government on August 10, 1951 
(Letter from Dean Rusk, the U.S. Assistant Secretary of State, to Yang Yu Chan, the ROK Ambassador to the United States [The “Rusk Document”]) (August 10, 1951)

12. * A note verbale of protest from the Government of Japan to the Government of the ROK on January 28, 1952, in response to a declaration concerning maritime sovereignty by the President of the ROK, Syngman Rhee. (January 28, 1952)

Repository:Shimane Prefecture Takeshima Reference Room

 On January 18, 1952, the ROK unilaterally established the “Syngman Rhee Line”, and claimed Korean fisheries jurisdiction over the vast body of water inside the line encompassing Takeshima. In response to this, Japan protested by a note verbal sent to the Government of the ROK on January 28. In the note, the Government of Japan strongly protested against the Government of the ROK stating “in the proclamation the Republic of Korea appears to assume territorial rights over the islets in the Japan Sea known as Takeshima (otherwise known as Liancourt Rocks). The Japanese Government does not recognize any such assumption or claim by the Republic of Korea concerning these islets, which are without question Japanese territory.”
 In the first part of this note, the Japanese Government strongly criticized this unilateral proclamation by the President of the ROK stating, “not only are entirely incompatible with the long internationally established principle of freedom of the high seas, but it is also counter to the basic principle of international cooperation for the development and protection on an equal footing of the marine resources of the high seas.”

* A note verbale of protest from the Government of Japan to the Government of the ROK on January 28, 1952, in response to a declaration concerning maritime sovereignty by the President of the ROK, Syngman Rhee. (January 28, 1952)
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